Akwamu King Nana Kwadjo Asemani VII Gorvernor of Ghana , West Africa .

In the 1670s Akwamu attacked the Ga and lost because the Danes supported the Ga. After losing, the Akwamus decided to take revenge on the Danes and Nana Asomani was the one to carry it out.

(Nana Kwadjo Asemani VII) of Akwamu was first employed as a cook in the English forts at Accra. He later became a trader at Accra and acted as a broker for Akwamu traders who came there to trade with the Danes in Christiansborg Castle (Osu Castle).

After planning, in 1693 he led a group of eighty Akwamu men into the castle dressed as traders who had come to buy fire arms but unknown to the Danes, they had hidden gunpowder in their clothes and turned the loaded guns on the Danes and took over Christiansborg Castle. 

The Danish captives were sent to Akwamu and Nana Kwadjo Asamani VII became the Governor of the Christiansborg Castle. He opened the castle to all traders and was known to fire cannons to welcome trading ships to his castle.

In August 1693, negotiations started and King Basua of the Akwamu freed the captives after a ransom was paid by the Danish government then the castle was bought back at over 100 marks of gold and Nana Asomani handed the castle over to them in 1694 but refused to give them the keys to the castle. The over 300 year old keys are still at the Akwamu Palace till date

After the return of the castle, Nana Kwadjo Asemani VII in La as a businessman. The Danes were not happy with how close he was to the castle and negotiated with him to go far away. He went to Ningo and was successful again a businessman until the Danes finally paid him to leave the coast completely.

In 1703, he went back to Akwamu under King Ado and he was made a chief. He built a palace for himself and mounted one of the cannons from the castle on it which he fired anytime he gets prominent visitors.

In November 2017, the Queen of Denmark, Her Majesty Margrethe II paid a visit to Akwamu and viewed the original Christiansborg Castle keys.

Kwesi Tumtum Ghanaian Musician.

Kwesi TumTum is a Ghanaian born musician whose real name is Zoltan Ohemeng-Boakye, named after Canadian God-father Zoltan Tayti. Kwesi TumTum previously went by the artistic name black iCON.
The music talent was from infancy but never took it serious until first recording in Senior High School. Kwesi TumTum got selected to be part of “The Next Big Thing” on GhOne tv in Ghana in the mid 2012. Left the shores of Ghana in the late 2012 and still took the music along. Performed to different nationalities. Decided to re-brand to Kwesi TumTum to stick to the authentic African roots and identity.

Argobba People of Ethiopia.

Argobba People of Ethiopia.

Argobba People can be found in Ethiopia and they are related to Amhara, Harari,Oromo, Somali,Tigray, Tigre. Argobba People are located in the northeastern and eastern part of the Country, Afar, Harari, Amhara, Oromia, along the great rift valley.

They Include Yimlawo,Gusa and many more others claimed Argobba derived from what is Arab geba meaning the Arabs have entered or arrived.

According to Aklil Asfaw historical account, Argobba Includes the Northern and Southern Argobba share religious, cultural and historical origin it is believed the Northern Argobba is believed by Amharic , Oromigna and Afarigna .

Yifat It is a plateau to the South of river Borkena , to the South of river kessem bordered by Menz on the west .The Argobba can also be found in Northern Shoa and Southern Wollo however, there is a clan called Doba Shagura among the doba established the walsma. It is said Argobba had came from Arabia, others claimed they had Intermingled both through marriage and shared culture with Amhara,Oromo and Afar.

It is believed Argobba are mostly made up of Muslim community,they claimed they are descendants of Prophet Muhammad they and Harari traced their dynasty back to the walasama . Others claimed Argobba derived from the har geba which means the silk that is seen on a mountain it give them a clue that the first Arabs who came into the area settled on a hill and pitched a silk tent and so they were given this appellation which is har gebba. The modern day Argobba around Harar which they are Adiya, some claimed they either migrated from Persia or Baghdad , Iraq after the 6th Century A.D. there was a military expansion southwards from Aksum. In the 10th Century A.D. Villages cropped up on the route from Zeila to Interior of Ethiopia began to be settled by traders. The Argobba is spoken by about 40,000 people in an northeast of Addis Ababa in Ethiopia.It is a member of the Southern ethiopian branch of semitic languages and has 4 main dialects Harar Aliyu, Amba, Shewa Rabit and Shonke .

Fali people of Nigeria, Cameroon and Ivory Coast.

Fali people of Nigeria , Cameroon and Ivory Coast.

Fali People can be found in Nigeria, Northern Cameroon and some parts of Northern Ivory Coast . Fali have many subgroups such as Bossoum, Kangou , Peske, Bori and Tingelin, In Cameroon they are known as Garoua and Kirdi, they grow crops such as millet, Chickpeas, Peanuts, Squash, tobacco, Okra and Cotton .

In Fulani fali means the perched , they are mostly in Mubi of Gongola state , farming and hunting also play a big role. The Fali ethnic group traced their ancestry to Ngomma who established ancient capital of Timpil and Others claimed they traced their Origins to the Sao Civilization of Lake Chad which flourished from 10th and 16th Centuries. Fali women known for their pottery, making of weave fabrics out of it .

Fao is known as the Supreme deity which is God, they also have donkeys, horses, cattle, goats, sheeps, chickens and pigs, bees are made by taken honey out of them . Falis make their own arts of dolls and clay carving, Fali on the northern part villages consists of round dwellings made of mud brick and having thatched roofs. They are separate rooms are added to the house when the children reach puberty and young males live in their own square huts until they are married .Each special stones are to represent the family’s ancestor .

Other fali subgroups Include Mubi, Vin, Madzara, Bwin and Huli and It is claimed they had came from eastern part of Chad and even Others claimed Sudan, Others claimed Sudan and settled in Bagira Present day currently Bwin, they later moved down from the hills and spread throughout the region . Fali People are located in Adamawa state of Nigeria , some parts of northern Cameroon and Ivory Coast followed by the symbolism such as Margi amulet , fali kirdi iron sword, doll pouppe of the fali and bana and furnerary doll used during some funerals.

Antaisaka People of Madagascar.

Antaisaka People of Madagascar.

Antaisaka People can be found in Madagascar also known as Tesaki, Tesesaka or Taisaka, Ateseka People . It is believed Antaisaka are mostly of African , some Indonesian and some Arab Ancestry , It is said their Kings descended from Zarabehava lineage , It is believed Zarabehava Dynasty crossed to the east and west between 1620 and 1650. It is believed Antaisaka used to be part of the Menabe Sakalava Kingdom , they migrated from Menabe Sakalava and settled in Naspandra Present day Vangaindrano in 1650s.

According to Ateseka Oral history, the founder was known as Andriaman desy which became a clan name, he was born in Present day Rapila a village in Tsiare Pioky, bear Mahabo then later became Thazorango and finally became known as Andria mandresrivo. It is believed Andramandesy departed with anger and attempted to seize his uncle’s rice alongside his younger brother’s succession then mother exile .

Andriamandesy departed with the warriors, In the 17th Century they were part of the 4 largest Kingdoms in Madagascar later Ratongalaza exile with his brothers to secure the throne . Antaisaka People are related to the Imerina and Betsilo tribe and they primarily Inhabit Southeastern Madagascar, around the city of Farafangana .

The Antaisaka People primarily inhabit the Southeastern Madagascar around the Farafangana and they speak a Malayo-Polynesian language. Antaisaka tribe or ethnic group who are also direct descendants of the Western Sakalva, they cultivate or grow coffee, banana and rice . Their houses are made up of Ravinala palm tree and built on stilts the houses have 2 doors. One doors it is believed one function as a normal entrance . The 2nd door is usually located on the east side also used for taking out Corpse . The Kibory situated on slopes before the funeral, the corpse has to dry out at a hidden in the forest as it location. The Antongil and Antaisaka allied to the Sakalava before the south came in succession which is Betsimisaraka.The Antaisaka subgroups such as Sahafatra, Antambahaokas, Antimoros, Antaifasy, Antiboina . It is claimed Antaisaka lived southeastern part of Madagascar mainly in Vangaindrano at the edge of rivers Mananara and Itonamy, they are known for bravery and being Warriors.

Queen Kaipkire a Female Warrior who revolted or fought against the British and Germans Colonists in Present day Namibia, Southern Africa .

Queen Kaipkire a Female Warrior who revolted or fought against the British and Germans Colonists in Present day Namibia, Southern Africa .

Queen Kaipkire was an Unknown Female Warrior from the Herero ethnic group of Present day Namibia and she was a Namibian by nationality , she led an army of Herero and they both fought against the British Colonists or slave masters during Colonialism and Wars .

It is said Queen Kaipkire also led the Rani of Jhasi the first war of Independence she fought in 1857, She is one of the Unknown African female warriors who was a Herero from Namibia to have led a revolt or rebellion against Europeans such as the British to stop them from enslaving her people and the German Colonial Soldiers from Oppressing her people and the people of Namibia .

It is believed Kaipkire continued the fight by war and liberating her people furthermore , she fought the Germans about 1919 . Queen Kaipkire believed strongly in her ancestral traditions and she led other herero women to also joined her army and fought as well .

It is believed first rebellion took place in 1903, Queen Kaipkire , Nama and Witboi murdered and shot 60 German who were both Colonists and settlers they were known for enslaving and opressing her people .

Nama also unified an army between two ethnic groups such as KhoiKhoi and Herero under the leadership of Queen Kaipkire and the 2nd revolt was led by her and Maharero and other hereros while they were another troops from Britain and Germany who had left Europe to what is now Namibia . Under Queen Kaipkire leadership , she had one of the unknown greatest revolt against the European Colonists by defeating them and killing Colonists who were settlers who called for wars .

It is claimed the German won one out of many battles just one time and lost many battles with her and her armies this proved she had one of the powerful armies , Germany first victory was under the leadership of Von Throtha in the battle of Waterberg later he and his troops lost many battles they had many defeats , their first victory they captured Hereros as prisons the Germans and took them to the prison when Queen Kaipkire lost her battle for the first time and she won many as well .

Queen Kaipkire gave a speech before her death and during her era when she won many battles she quoted “ I can hear the roar of Courageous women , African women have been Introduced to alien or foreign cultures in the past , the African women themselves , we will fight and sacrifice our lives on the battlefields , we are going to liberate and fight for our freedom and return back to our heritage”.

Research Piece and Speech translated originally from Italian and French language by Kwame Selikem Okatakyie (New Research 2018)

Alonso Illecas a Maroon from Senegal, West Africa and his significant role in Ecuador during Slave Trade Biography.

Alonso Illecas a Maroon from Senegal, West Africa and his significant role in Ecuador during Slave Trade Biography.

African liberator or Marroon known as Alonso llesceas was born around 1528 in what is now Present day Senegal he is of Hausa and Mandinka ancestry at age 10. He was sold into slavery by Catholic missionaries to Spain at a young age he was forced to convert to Catholicism and he was baptized in Seville with the adopted name Enrique translated as Eric in English later the Slave master Illecas gave him the name Alonso de Illescas he learned the Spanish language and he played instruments from Senegal called Kora which is played by the Wolof and Madinka mostly in West Africa, when he was at age 25 he was sold again and transported by Spanish to the Americas which includes North and South America by the family of his slave master in 1553, the merchant ship of the Spanish sailed to Panama then to Peru before he was brought to Ecuador later he rebelled, fought and escaped with other Africans for their freedom.

According to Afro- Ecuadorian Anthropologist, Miguel de Balboa Alonso he was once invited to a feast with a chief Chillanduli with the Indian Ecuadorians in Dobe, Alonso Illecas was a brave young man who fought in a war he spoke fluent Spanish and can write it, the Spanish Slave masters wanted to maintained a friendly relationship with him but he rejected it he was once told by a Catholic priest that he was pardon and appointed as a Governor of Esmealdas it is believed he took appointment and wrote a letter to the King of Spain and told him he appreciated his offer but added that before he approve the offer first he have to sit down and talk with his people.

Alonso Illeceas broke the relatonship between him and the King of Spain which is dangerous , An Afro Ecuadorian freedom fighter called Maria Chiquinquira Diaz was an Afro Ecudorian woman of Niger Ancestry others claimed her maternal Ancestors came from the Niger regions brought to Ecuador she was the first woman to stand up and fought the Spanish plantation owners called Presbyter Afonso Cepeda de Arizcum Elizondo, Maria daughter was also captured as a slave she fought for her daughter freedom in 1794. She freed 1,000 black women in Ecuador and rebelled against the Spanish but she was forced to work on Sundays on the plantations but she refused.

Afro Ecuadorians are mixed with African, Indian and of European ancestry due to Slave trade the Spanish had children with most of the African women brought to Ecuador but it is believed the Indian intermarried with them, Ecuador has a strong Bantu and Mande influences they still pratice the African Culture combined with the Indo cultures as well, they brought an instrument from Africa called Marimba which is a musical instrument which consist of wooden bars and metal mallets for the West Africans it is derived from balafon. They performed the marimba dances, marimba was a way they expressed their freedom but it was restricted by the Spanish in the early 20th Century they would display their rich culture and traditions, El Azucar dance traced its origins back to what is now Present day Mozambique it was brought to Ecuador and was performed on the sugar plantations.

Burunge People of Tanzania, East Africa .

Burunge People of Tanzania , East Africa .

Burunge People can be found in Tanzania and they are part of the Bantu Speaking people also they are related to the Akie People , Akiek People , Alagwa, Asa , Bembe and Datoga People of Tanzania . They speak the Burunge language which belong to the South Kushitic branch , they are also known as Bulunge , Mbulugwe and they grow crops such as millet , maize , sorghum , beans and sweet potatoes .

According to the Burunge researched historical account , They belong to a small cluster of ethnic groups in Tanzania known as the Southern Kushites . Their Ancestors are believed to have originated from the Ethiopian Plateau they first traced of this occupation dates from Upper Paleolithic period . At Some time before 1000 Bc waves of caucasiod people began to an out from Southern Ethiopia bringing with them a full Neolithic Culture with agriculture and domestic animals . The differences between the language is of Kushitic origin and has different structure than that of the majority of People in Tanzania who speak a Bantu based languages . During the dry season they turn mostly to socialing from home around their home brewed beer called Pombe .

The Bulunge People are located in the Kondoa district of Dodoma region, Southeast of Dodoma, Southeast of the Langi Goima , Chambalo and Mirambu villages . It is said lake Burunge is only a 20 minute drive away from Tarangire National Park . Lake Burunge camp consists of 20 luxury tents and 10 lodge rooms located in a Shady bush land grove, with spectacular views onto Lake Burunge . Its main building a central lounge and bar or dining area built on a raised wooden deck . Boma Village is for guest and they interact with the Mbuwge people of Tanzania. Burunge , Sangawe , Tarangire and Manyara were believed to have take part of the great migration from Central Africa . The Tarangire river which runs through It is an arid haven , prepared with ancient baobab trees , towering termite mounts , and home to huge herds of elephant, Tarangire is 14Km from Arusha, Tanzania , a Tarangire is known for elephant , buffalos , elephant , zebra and others . Burunge language is spoken in Tanzania has a total of 130 languages, Burunge foods are the same as Other Tanzanian cuisines such as Wali which is rice , Ugali , Chapati , bread , Nyama , Choma , Plantantains , Cassava leaves , beans , green peas , Okra , Kebab, fried cassava dough , rice patties , coconut milk , and other cuisines which are unknown .

According to Akismet historical account , It is said Burunge People had migrated across the Serengeti plains, the most magnificent mountain Kilimanjaro to the north later to the Island of Zanzibar . Others claimed they had originated from either Present day Eritrea or Abyssinia Present day Ethiopia and Present day Egypt before first settling in Zanzibar and settled in their Present day homeland in the Southern Serengeti they used to live together with Hadza people while they were hunting and participated during a war against their enemies . It is claimed Burunge was a former Colony of both English and German , It is claimed Burunge , Iraqw People now farm the fertile volcanic northern Ethiopia bringing with them a full Neolithic Culture with agriculture and domestic animals .

The difference between the languages of the Southern Cushites or Kushities in Tanzania and the Cushites of Southern Ethiopia suggest a long period of Isolation . It is believed Burunge have a language which is considered to be either Bantu or Kushitic origins and has a different structure than that of the majority of people in Tanzania who speak a Bantu based languages . During the dry season they turn mostly to socializing from home around their home their home brewed beer called Pomb3 or Pombe. The Burunge People are located in the Kondoa district , Dodoma region , Southeast of the Langi , Goima, Chambalo and Mirambu villages . It is said Lake Burunge is only a 20 minutes drive away from Tarangire National Park . Lake Burunge camp consists of 20 Luxury tents and 10 Lodge rooms located in a Shady bush , land grove , with spectacular views onto Lake Burunge . Its main building a Central Lounge and bar or dining area built on a raised wooden deck . Boma Village is for guest and they Interact with the Mbuwge People of Tanzania and Manyara were believed to have take part of the great Migration from Central Africa . The Tarangire river which runs through it is an arid haven peppered with ancient baobab trees, towering termite mounts , and home to huge herds of elephant , Tarangire is 14 km from Arusha , Tanzania . Tarangire animal symbols include elephants , buffalos , lions , cheetah , elephant , zebra and others . Burunge language is spoken in Tanzania and Tanzania has a total of 130 languages .

Burunge People went on the Northern highlands on the great rift Valley escarpment around Ngorongoro . Some claimed Burunge and Swahili People their language originates from the Coastal regions and Zanzibar , they traded mainly in copper, salt , Iron and Ivory under the ruler of the first Burunge King Warrior around 1800s , Nyamwezi , Burunge have Inhabited what is now Present day Tanzania, they were claimed to have been in Bagamoyo before leaving Present day Zanzibar . The Hadza and Burunge used to have inhabited the north Central Tanzania around Lake Eyasi in the Central rift Valley into the neighboring Serengeti Plateau , Others believed in a myths that Burunge and Kikuyu or Iraqw have the same Migration history and they both settled at surrounding Karatu town in Arusha region , before Burunge migrated and established their final settlements in their Present day settlements , furthermore , Burunge can be found in Ngorongoro, Lake Manyara , Tarangire , the Bantu in Tanzania Include Mbugwe, Nyiramba , Nyaturu . According to Joshua’s historical account , It is believed Burunge have a language of either Bantu or Kushitic origin and has a different structure than other of the majority of People in Tanzania who speak Bantu based languages . Burunge People grow crops such as millet , sorghum , which are grown during rainfalls . During the dry season they turn mostly to socializing from home brewed beer known as Pomb3 or Pombe .

In Burunge Culture , the most prominent musical Instrument of the day consisted of some wooden spoons and a wooden tray turned upside down . The Burunge creaking sound that caused by the second made by women drumming on their calabashes with stick , while a young man every now and then sounded a waterbuck horn . The Burunge People kept the rhythm by drumming on a upside down plastic bucket . Add to this about ten stamping feet with ankle bells on them , traditionally, old men perform a traditional dance two of our most respectable linguists were pulled into the performance , young girls sit next to someone and smile to one another who can’t dance . Buffalo is also a very Important also in Burunge tradition, apart from other animals as well as Elephants , Ostrich and Cheetahs .

It is said Mbugwe and Burunge are Bantu People who live beside Lake Manyara near the base of the Great Rift Valley . They are traditionally Cultivators and cattle herders . Their close relations are the Rangi of Kondoa district in the Dodoma region, Other narrations stated or claimed that Burunge , Iraqw and Massai both fought in a war against their enemies , Others Claimed Burunge may have originated from either Present day Sudan , Present day Tunisia or Present day Djibouti some myths . Tarangire National Park have adorable calves all the way

Kusu People of Dr. Congo.

Kusu People of Dr. Congo .

Kusu People can be found in Dr. Congo , they are also known as Kikusu People and they are related to the Songye People, Hemba People , Kuba People and Luba People of Dr. Congo. They grow crops such as maize , yams , beans and raised other domesticated animals Including cows , goats , sheeps and chickens . Their Sculpture has similarities with the Luba , Hemba and Songye that Includes figures and traditionally, women also make pottery , stools and basketry . Fishing, Farming and hunting plays a significant roles in the Kusu communities , In their Culture, Kusu are split into a smaller villages that are relatively isolated in the South one another particularly in the South the villages are further divided into castes in which the blacksmiths are Influential . The Ceremonies for traditional chiefs of the Kusu are similar to the Luba traditions also the elders are considered as the leaders of the villages who have a higher positions of power .

Among Kusu People of Dr. Congo, It is said Vilie is considered as a Creator or God, Ancestors are the guardian angels, their deities are believed to be of both Hemba and Mongo origins . It is believed Kusu live on the left bank of the Luala bala river, during their movement to the north, they passed through Luba, Hemba and Songye land where they adopted some of their traditions and cultures . They are divided into clans , each headed by a Chief known as Wembi which they assisted by the Village Chief known as Mwamkana and the Chiefs of family are known as Bankumi .

According to their Oral history , Kusu, Nkutshu , Tetela and Mongi were believed to have migrated from the northwest and Kusu were said to be of Mongo , Luba and Kudu origins, their first migration started southwards , then they moved back north through Luba, Songye and Hemba regions, acquiring social customs and learning artistic styles along the way . The Kusu arrived in their Present day homeland which they split into group others migrating further north and south which remain largely separated and remain largely separated and divided before their Independence in their Present day location . The Kusu Ancestor figure carving wood It is said is an impressive nicely carved wooden male ancestor figure standing 15 Inches in height . Carved from a single piece of hardwood the figure has aged patina and apart from a small wood stress fracture on the back of the lower head It is Infantastic condition . The figure of Kusu tribal history is shared with ethnic groups such as Nkutshu and Telela. It is said much of the Kusu Sculpture is similar to their neighboring ethnic groups, which Include Songye, Hemba, Kuba, Tetela and Luba People also their language is part of the Bantu which is known as KiKusu . Their Sculpture arts Include the Kusu male ancestor statue which is made of wood and shells , Spoon Sculpture, rattle sculpture, fly whisk , tribal dance mask, bronze doll sculpture , bronze doll sculpture, Others believed the Kusu and Batetela lived in region between Lusambo and Upper Congo river, in the provinces of Sankuru and Maniema they were later in the late 1800s after the arrival of Arabs and Belgians in the region. The Kusu and Batetela are the largest subgroups of the Mongo ethnic group . Their traditional cow or goat skin drum is used for dancing usually accompanying the lukumbi the six toned slit drum , there were a small cylindrical two toned drum which was used in wars and other celebration events . Their Sculpture is known for Kakudji which is made up of wood, seeds, fabric , animal skin , animal vertebra metal and animal skin . It is said Kusu also cultivate cassava and bananas, they are considered to be Patrilineal descent and they traced to one common male ancestor , there is also ankisi figure with a ball on the head containing spiritual material , the typical Kusu power figure originated from the eastern part of Dr. Congo . It is believed in the mid 20th Century , the Kusu figures have the same kind of look as those of their counterparts of Luba and Hemba. Typical sculpture of Kusu, however It is the cone shaped top meant to contain a charge in order to give the figure its power . It has the serene expression of the face has the fine beard characteristic of the kusu sculpture of their male ancestors . It is a stylish figure which has a powerful expression. The Kusu miniature carvings exemplify artists workmanship and detail.This Include power figures, metal objects, miniature or traditional masks, the powerful figures were used for healings , protection, prosperity, fertility and hunting. Masks were used for Initiations, funerals, education and protection as well. Their art sculptures Include Kusu Staff , Kusu Mortar , Kusu whistle, Kusu cup, Kusu figure and Kusu mask. According to Authentic Africa’s historical account on Kusu stools, most of the Chief of the stools shared historical background with Luba, Hemba, Nkutsu and Tetela which are said to have came from the northwest , It is believed Kusu moved north through Luba, Songye and Hemba regions or territory acquiring social customs and learning artistic styles along the way when they settled in Dr. Congo when they split into 2 groups and migrated further north and south the stools of the Kusu are made up of wood, bronze , brass reserved for Chiefs and elders also the Kusu have shown a proclivity for geometrical design using sharp edged and round curve. Traditionally, Kusu have dolls, masks, leather floor mats, statues, sculptures, traditional paintings and jewelleries . The Kusu traditional knife a large the spatulate blade squared at the tip and swollen at midsection with central depression , fine hardwood grip with swollen center, which was two carved bands above and below and domed pommel. A thick bundle of raffia separates the blade with the dark spotting and areas of moderate pitting , the handle with good age patina a blade which is approximately 36 cm and overall 51 cm . It is said Kusu figure which has a Antelope pigments. The Kusu Antelope figures shows a good signs of age , use and exposure as like other tribal knife which weapon historical’s account, Kusu tribal knife which dates back to the 1900s, about 60,000 Kusu people lived in the Southeastern part of Dr. Congo along the left bank of the Lulalaba river. Formerly, a hunting society, they have become more sedentary and have turned to agriculture and fishing. Kusu tend to live in small villages Isolated from each other and their figures symbolize the spirits of the Ancestors and the forest and half of figures have some Kasongo Influence and the Kusu is considered to be a bantu language and Gengele Creole is a Kusu creole language which has Kusu language , The Kusu bearded male miniature sculpture arts, contain to energize the figure, the figures were used commemorate the leaders of lineage and chiefs of land , It is believed figures were placed on the family shrines where offering and praises were conducted . The figures are made up of wood which dates back to approximately 20th Century , It is a number of chiefdoms, local Kusu styles of carving evolved sharing similarities but differing in details of sculpting and in use body marking and showing the Influence of Songye and Hema in overall style . The figures have holes carved in either abdomen or head containing spiritual material, the typical Kusu power figure originated from the eastern part of Congo . In the form of a human half figure, with coffee bean eyes, short nose and closed mouth, straights, square shoulders , slightly bent arms and a round base broadening out into a cone shape . Carved from hardwood and dyed black . It is said Kusu traditional priest , soothsayer or traditional healer known as Nganga would then construct a net made of twisted woven fibre strings .The Nganga would then fill the net ball with spiritual material Including soil stones , the head of the power to protect its own Individual , the owner grant a bountiful hunt or give good health . It is said the Kusu power figure is very old with partly , skinny patina Including on the ball as a result of long term use . Only a hairline crack due to age on the left of the face and small , old piece of damage of the base . Otherwise, no damage originally power figures such as this had an Iron spike affixed to their round base which was then Inserted into ground to enable the figure to stand upright securely. The Present figure has a hole for this iron spike Its height 26cm between 1900 and the 1st third of the 20th Century . Kusu Hemba female figure, the carving traditions of Kusu are longstanding and show significant influences from the neighboring Songye and Luba People. It is said the female ancestor figure reminiscent of the Luba and Hemba style, It is formed of a rectilinear shapes that produce a remarkably different Impression when viewed in profile. Ventral sacrifices and a deeply trancelike, In ward gaze further distinguish this fine Congolese the work which retains Its Original change condition of wood figures are very good with stable crack on base this Include wood, fiber, bamboo which dates far back conducted . The hands are placed the surface shows evidence of being through handing and age .

The Kusu Mask and Its Tradition .

The Kusu maks is an exceptionally beautiful and well preserved piece of the masks art, Others claimed Kusu and Batetela lived in the region between Lusamboo and the Upper Congo river in the provinces of Sankuru and Maniema. Kusu people practice fishing , raising cassava , banana and kola nuts . They are related to the Banyamulenge and Tetela people, separated from Tetela in the late 1800s after the Belgians and Arabs had arrived in the region. It is said they might have originated on the right bank of the Lomami river Kusu and Batetela or tetela are known for revolts in the 1890s. Their traditional skin drum Include sheep , leopard, goat as well this also include slit drum, the leopard skin drum was formerly used for wars and victory in battle , the drums is used for poetic and communication . It is believed the Kusu came northwest with Nkutshu and Tetela . Kusu passed through Luba, Hemba and Songye territories and Other their sculptures are of Kusongo Influence .

Kusu Ethnic group and Its migration and separation from the Kingdom of Kongo and Kingdom of Ndongo Present day Angola .

Other myths, which it is claimed Kusu used to be part of the Kingdom of Kongo which was a Kingdom located in the West Central Africa in Present day Northern Angola , Cabinda , the republic of the Congo , the western portion of Dr. Congo as well as the Southernmost part of Congo . Some believed or claimed Kusu were originally Ndongo People of Angola who had migrated and formed the Kusu tribe before separating from the Kingdom of Ndongo in Present day Angola , It is claimed they had migrated by crossing the Kwanza river to Present day Dr. Congo . According to Khamithi’s account , Kusu and Other Bantus spoke Egyptian hieroglyphics while others believed they might have migrated Southerly from Present day Egypt then migrated to Abyssinia Present day Ethiopia , Present day Sudan before Kusu made their final settlements in Dr. Congo .

The Kusu , Zande and Mangbetu arts are characterized by spear or bow shafts , the art features with stylized elongated heads, their traditions Include making pottery, weaving raffia, and creating a traditional ceremonial dress . Other believed Kusu were part of the Kongo tribe and were part of the Kingdom of Kongo . Among the Kusu People of Dr. Congo , they make a dish known as Fufu which is made up of Cassava, Manioc tubers , pounded into the texture of an oatmeal which is eaten out of a communal bowl , other primary staples Include sweet potatoes , perch , bananas and plantains .

In Kusu Culture, It is an Insult to use your left hand to shake the hands or giving Instructions using the left hand , using of the right hand is a sign of respect and dignity also fish is a primary food source for the Kusu , fish can be harvested after some months of feeding . Traditionally, women fry or salt the fish that the family did not consume . They also use kola nuts , palm nuts , wine , oil and fruits as well and beer is brewed using millet or maize and palm nut for special occasions , which usually Involve singing , dancing , playing of drums . Kusu Chief or Kusu Village headmen have the authority over the village land and ownership .

Kusu People have natural resources such as Diamonds, Golds, Manganese and oil which was kept by their Ancestors also they practice a Patrilineal succession just like the Mongo People of Dr.Congo , In which Inheritance is passed through the Father’s side of the family . In Kusu marriage , It is said the man and his father or parents would give gifts which is valuable to the woman to be married her family requesting their son hand in marriage . The Kusu Traditional Priest is known as Nganga used medicine which are sacred to cure any sickness of the People of the Village , Nganga also have to master and know the herbs very well and throughout the Nganga Initiation process he or she must be chosen by God and Ancestors not by personal choice the Oracles which declare if one is chosen to become Nganga . Before the arrival of the European Missionaries who brought Christianity in the late 15th Century , Kusu were believed to be Spiritual People who had also a symbol of their Cross traditionally which has a similar shape to that of the Christian religious cross .

Clothing and mats are made up of raffia palm tree furthermore , Kusu folklore is traditional way of communicating through Literature , Art , Music and Dance which is carried tradition from generation to generation , In Kusu Spirituality , A Crocodile is associated with something bad or bad forces while bird , lions and other animals is associated with good forces . Grandparents are always known for telling folktales while they put fire on in the evening also Kusu tradition there is a belief that children are gifts of God which symbolize wealth , good fortune and other symbolism also all births and deaths are celebrated by singing and dancing as a way of honoring .

Afro-Barbadians in Barbados of African Ancestry , Caribbeans.

Afro-Barbadians in Barbados of African Ancestry , Caribbeans.

Afro Barbadians are descendants of Freed and Enslaved Africans who were transported or captured by Europeans such as British or English . They were captured from Present day Nigeria, Present day Sierra Leone , Present day Congos Including Republic Congo, Present day Angola, Present day Senegal , Present day Togo, Present day Benin, Present day Guinea Bissau, Present day Ivory Coast , Present day Equatorial Guinea, Gold Coast Present day Ghana , Present day Cameroon , Present day Mozambique and Other parts of West Africa and Central Africa . It is believed Enslaved Africans brought to Barbados mostly came from African ethnic groups such as Fon , Aja, Mina, Kikongo, Ewe, Igbo, Ibibio, few Yoruba , Fulani , Akan Including Asante or Ashanti, Ahanta and Fante or Mfantse , Ga Adangme , Efik , Hausa , Bamileke , Tikar and Other ethnic groups across Africa . It is said sugar cane cultivation began in the 1640s, Slavery in Barbados began after a Captain known as Powell brought the first enslaved Africans in the 1627 mostly from Gold Coast Present day Ghana which enslaved Ghanaians were captured from both Elmina and Axim slave forts while other enslaved Nigerians were also captured from the Badagry Slave fort and they were sold to Barbados by the European Slave traders during the 1700s laboring of cotton and tobacco was contracted due to their demand for enslavements of Africans and a strong labor force after the sugar revolution, It is said Slave Ships from Europe was filled with guns and other goods by the mid 1600s there were over 5,000 enslaved Africans in Barbados and by the early 1800s, there were another over 385,000 being enslaved .

It is said by the beginning of the 1800s the majority of the enslaved Africans were Imported caused by the high mortality rate , due to the bad conditions and overwork . It is believed by the 1700s, Barbados was considered as one of the leaders in the Slave trade from the European Colonies . It is believed Sugar cane cultivation began in the 1640s, and Sugar was the focus of the Industry as It developed Into the main commercial enterprise, Barbados was divided into large plantation estates which replaced the smally holding of the early English Settlers as the wealthy planters pushed out the poor. Enslaved Africans were transported in the last 2 decades of the 17th Century , Sugar cane dominated Barbados economy growth, the Island’s cash crop was at the top . Majority of the enslaved Africans were Imported caused by the high mortality rate , due to the bad conditions and overwork .

It is believed by the 1700s, Barbados was considered to be one of the Leaders in the Slave trade from the European Colonies . Sugar cane cultivation began in the 1640s, and Sugar was the focus of the Industry as it developed into the main commercial enterprise , Barbados was divided Into large plantation estates which replaced the smally holding of the early English settlers as the wealthy planters pushed out of the poor their wealth . Enslaved Africans were transported in the last 2 decades of the 17th Century, Sugar cane dominated Barbados economy growth, the Island’s cash crop was at the top sugar Industry in the 1720s and In the 1680s, they were 15,000 enslaved Africans freed while 50,000 were still enslaved . In the early 19th Century, they continued to imported enslaved Africans In Barbados, It is estimated between 1627 and 1807, approximately 387,000 enslaved Africans were captured or sold by British to Barbados and Slave trade was ceased In 1807, emancipation took place In 1834. According to the world factbook historical account , the Island was Inhabited when It was first settled by the English In 1627. Enslaved Africans worked on the Sugar plantations established on the Island until 1834 when Slavery was abolished. Barbados is located in the Caribbean and shares border to the northeast of Venezuela . The Barbados population has a higher percentage of people of African ancestry, which is followed by 8% population of the mixed race known as Mulatto and European which is only 4% .

According to George Eleady’sCole account, The honourable Sir. Justice Marston Gibson, Ka is the current chief and president of the court of Appeal . He was born on the 3rd of March , 1954 and was educated at St. Matthias School, Boys Foundation and Harrison College . He pursued legal studies at the Cave hill Campus of the university of the western Indies from 1972 and he obtained the bachelor of laws in 1975. In 1977, he was awarded the Rhodes Scholarship and bachelor of the Civil law at the Keble College, Oxford University in England , which he obtained In 1979. He also attended the Hugh wooding law School St. Augustine In Trinidad and Tobago from 1979 to 1981, he was awarded for the chairman prize for evidence and procedure in 1981. While he attended the Hugh Wooding Law School. He lectured in Criminal law at the faculty of law. Martin went to USA In 1987 and he was admitted to practice law in the state of New York In 1989 and served for 22 years in New York State court system futhermore, he began in 1989 the month of March 1989, as an Appellate Court Attorney from 1989 to 1992 .

The Kingship in Barbados among Afro Barbadians .

Afro Barbadians trace their Lineage and Inherit through both parents which is mother and father.In Afro Barbadian Culture, their household may consists of a single man or women .They idealize a households that consists of married couple and their children also these households can also Include brothers, uncles, son as a core family unit .

The Traditional Afro Bajan Stick fighting in Barbados of African Origins .

This Sticking fighting which had originated from West Africa , Others claimed Present day Angola, during bajan stick fighting where performed by a group of 2 people using fire hardened wooden sticks, varying in length as weapons and carrying the stick fighting . It is believed Africans who were enslaved arrived with the English Slave traders In 1627 the plantation main crops Include tobacco, sugar cane also Bajan African dolls,

Coucou which is Fufu a local dishes which originated from West Africa and also with flying fish . Coucou which was also brought to Antigua , Barbados , Bahamas , Belize , Honduras but in Puerto rico and Ecuador which is Mofongo futhermore, Coucou can be found in other parts of the Americas which is made up of maize , guinea corn also some sweet potatoes or Conkies . Kwaku Ananse folktales was also brought and told in Jamaica, Barbados, Bahamas, Grenada, Antigua , Nicaragua, Aruba , French Guiana and other parts of the Caribbeans and Americas during Slave Trade . The Enslaved Africans at the plantations will put on fire to spread the Kwaku Ananse Stories and also sing songs which was brought to the new world , which enslaved Akans , Igbo , Yoruba and other African People of West and Central Africa also share stories which are similar to Kwaku Ananse and Kwaku Ananse in the Carribeans is rather known as Anacy .

According to Sun Group Inc’s historical account , Back in 1627 few of enslaved Africans came ashore with English Slave traders during Slave trade. Enslaved Africans built the Chattel houses as the type of Structure was the most suitable, over 3,00 enslaved Africans were in Barbados , Sugar production played a big roles the crop over festival which is a 3 week long festival parades , contest , traditional harvesting of sugar cane on the Island as well as paying homage.The Afro Barbadian Crop over festival is celebrated by taking big part display on the streets in creative costumes, Calypso music. They also make pottery which they produced, they make clothes basket weaving , bush teas are being planted even used used for medicinal and nutritious purposes also It is used for drinking teas.

According to Frank Cass’s historical account , Barbados played a significant role in early trade that linked the Carribeans with West Africa and of Britian although the Island ‘s economic Importance among the english and their sugar empire was superseded by Jamaica in the early In the early 18th Century , It is believed over 350,000 Africans landed on the shores from about about 1650 to 1807 , approximately 375,000 and 1,000 were African natives by the last quarter of the 18th Century during the 18th Century during the period, they were 70,000. Enslaved Africans by 1817 who were comprised only seven percent (70%) of the population that were numbered about 77,000.

During the 1630s, Sugar cane was Introduced to the agriculture , the production of Sugar , tobacco and cotton from 1644 to 1700 the Sugar and Slavery , a potential market was formed for enslaved Africans and sugar making machinery by the Dutch who were considered to have supplied Barbados with their requirements of forced labour from West Africa. According to Axes, enslaved Africans came from Present day Sierra Leone, Present day Guinea, Present day Ghana , Present day Ivory Coast, Present day Nigeria , Present day Angola , Present day Cameroon and Other parts of Africa. It is said Europeans plantation became stronger and successful in Slavery business when they arrived in Barbados in the earlier period. It is said by 1720, Barbados were no longer a dominant force within the Sugar Industry.Bridgetown, Barbados was a capital and commercial center of Barbados, It is also the Island’s only city which was established in 1628, It is the cultural , political , economic heart of this Caribbean Island nation and by the 17th Century Bridgetown were the focus of the British trade based expansion in the Americas, the town of Bridgetown had become a trading post for goods, sugar and enslaved Africans who were distributed throughout Americas. According to Joyce Chepkemoi’s account, Africans who were enslaved came to Barbados during the 16th and 17th Centuries futhermore, Bajan Creole is closely related to Guyanese , Belizean Creole and Gullah language also Bajan Creole is combined with Igbo, Manjaku, Fulani, Susu, some Twi, some Efik , some mixture of Ga Dangme and other mixed African languages but the language actually has a strong Igbo Influence , Barbados has a strong Igbo and others claimed some Akan Influence in Bajan Creole , they are Igbo words such as Unu which became Wunna, Obia which became Obeah, be mu which became Bim di , de or deh , Soso . Fulani words Include Jukka poke , spur became Jook Juk, Twi words such as Adope which became duppy. Manjaku is a language spoken in Guinea Bissau, Manjaku word such as Ngyam became Nyam . The Crop festival dates back to the late 1700s, masquerades are of Igbo Origin, costumes is both Barbadian and some West African Origins , Afro Barbadian Jewelleries is considered to be of African and Indian Origin which was brought to the west Indies during and after Slavery jewelries which is known as West Indian Bangle . It is believed African women who arrived in Barbados wore bangles for centuries as a symbol of adornments, It is claimed while Indians who Intermarried with them the Indian women wore the bangles as a symbol of marriage Union, these bangles were made up of diamond , silver, copper and gold they are worn traditionally in pairs and It is used to used as a awesome gifts . The Afro Barbadian Macaroni pie which is Macaroni and Cheese is specially seasoned and baked to perfection .The Introduction of Sugar cane from Dutch Brazil In 1640 , which completely transformed Society and economy . Barbados eventually had one of the biggest Sugar cane Industries, the british were forced to abolish Slave trade In 1807 , In 1816, enslaved Africans led a rebellion of 20,000 enslaved Africans on over 70 Plantations , they fought bravely and kicked European Plantation owners , there was a flag taken from rebels against Slavery in Barbados , after the Uprising Known as Bussa’s rebellion in 1816, It is believed the flag a appears to stressed the rebels loyalty to Britain to the crown while conveying their earnest desire for liberty. It is believed later European forces 100 of them were killed by enslaved Africans during the rebellion. According to Williamsburg’s historical account , Barbados is widely regarded as the first British Colony to undergo a Sugar revolution , It is said by the 1620s, enslaved Africans had accompanied the first settlers also in the 1670s the Slave trade , particularly through his agent , the royal African company located in the Bridgetown, became the primary supplier of labour on the Island , It is said after the English settled in Barbados In 1627 , they quickly began cultivating different crops find a lucrative export . Enslaved Africans in Barbados sometimes escaped by boat or ship to Other Islands such as St. Vincent and Antigua in contrast to white Indentured servants , by European Slavery laws, enslaved Africans could not legally own a land but many of them were forced to migrate with plantation owners also sold to other English Colonies such as Bahamas, Carolina and Others they brought the experience with plantation agriculture as well as strategies for how to resist the new world enslavement. It is said Europeans Slave owners had a trading system that no Africans being enslaved cannot be sold , convey , Imported or Inherited without first being registered.

After the Slavery Abolition Act in 1833, European Slave owners were allowed to compensate for the loss of their Property . In 1661 to 1688 during that periods, the Sugar cane plantations which were required as a deal of hard labor, Slave codes were Implemented and Sugar cane Industry exploded and enslaved Africans brought over to Barbados to cultivate the Sugar cane .

Revolts in Barbados by Afro Barbadians .

Revolts were led by the mostly the enslaved Igbos between 1702 and 1816. According to Matthew Cornibert historical account , the origin and construction of the Slave houses in Barbados , the Slave houses were made from materials such as stones, wood mainly wattle and daub houses with thatched roofs were built in Barbados . The enslaved Africans who worked on the plantations they had to construct and repair their own houses known as Slave huts, the Slave houses that were built in Barbados are wattle, daub houses with a thatched roof .

The Stone houses were constructed but also used thatched roofs . In the early Barbadian plantation , most of the Slave huts that are standing this modern day in the parish of St. Lucy on the road to river bay It is sad the Slave house the stone hut has a thatched roof , the walls are made with slave roof covered with outside leaves , the roof can be made with a variety of leaves . The roof thatching in Barbados was made from plantation leaves especially in the 17th and 18th Centuries , the palm leaves or branches and what was the most common type the leaves or trash of the sugar cane . Huts needed constant maintenance and frequent replacement . The Stone, wooden houses had wooden frames and shutters similar to those working class houses in the 20th Century and In the mid 17th Century , planters houses along with the higher class and poor whites . The purpose and significance of the barbados slave code masters to torture slaves physically and mentally .

Emancipation is celebrated on the 1st day of August to mark the abolition of Slavery in Barbados. It dates back to the Slave uprising on the Island , called the rebellion of 1816, which was led by Bussa and enslaved Igbo form Present day Nigeria . According to Kew Richmond Surrey’s historical account , between 1662 and 1807 the British shipped 3.1 million Africans across the Atlantic Ocean in the transatlantic Slave trade . It is said Africans were forcibly brought to the British owned colonies In the caribbean , enslaved Africans constantly rebelled against Slavery right up until emancipation In 1834. The Slave revolts during the 18th and 19th Centuries , Including Tacky’s rebellion In 1760s Jamaica , the Haitian revolution then the Feodon revolution around the 1790s , In 1816, Barbados Slave revolt was led by Bussa alongside with enslaved Africans there was another Slave revolt which took place in Jamaica led by Sam Sharpe . It is believed the british Slave trade officially ended in 1807 and Barbados was officially ended in 1807 and Barbados formally nickname was known as Little England .

Afro Barbadian history Include the emergence of the Sugar Industry , escalation of the Slave trade , the 17th Century Slave Society , the black codes, Slave resistances , free blacks and freed coloreds in the 18th Century , the plantocracy , eastern rebellion , black empowerment , emancipation and Apprenticeship , Independence and the post Independence. It is said both few Barbadians and Americans Identify Slavery with the Cultivation of rice , rice was considered as a major plantation crop the Africa rice is believed to have been domesticated above 3000 years ago in the Inland delta of the Upper niger river in the Present day Mali . The Europeans such as the Portuguese and Dutch established a trading fort on the coast of West Africa before the British on the coast of the regions of Senegal to Liberia which served as a major focus for the Atlantic Slave trade . Afro Barbadians escaped Maroons who were mostly of Igbo Ancestry alongside with non Igbo Maroons who were believed to be Akans and some of Congolese Ancestry . The Rebellion led by Bussa started in the evening in the southeast parish of St. Philips , spreading to the most of the southern and central parishes of Church , St. John , St. George and part of St. Michael , 3 days later It was put down by the local militia or soldiers and the King’s troops.

The Bussa rebellion ws from 14th April to 16th April, 1816 was the largest slave revolt , Bussa with both Maroons , freed and enslaved Africans treated unfairly by the Europeans which led to the abolition of Slavery and emancipation of former Slaves , It was followed by the large scale rebellion in Demara in 1823 . Bussa was considered as a freed man born in Present day Nigeria and was an Igbo by tribe who was sold by the British to Barbados where Slaver had been legal since 1661, In the late 18th Century as well . Bussa , King Wiltshire Bailey and Johnny led the enslaved Africans at the Bailey’s plantation on the 16th April, 1816, Bussa gathered some 400 freedom fighters both men and women , Bussa military defeated the Europeans he still remain Barbados Icon, In 1985, 1969, there were able to communicate with each other in their native languages , playing drums , practicing their Indigenous African Spirituality , provoking European Slave traders were part of the revolts . On the 14th April, `1816, Bussa enslaved African Igbo by tribe led a rebellion with both freed and enslaved Maroons who were mostly Igbos .

The Baobab tree was considered to be of the African landscapes and the Oldest living tree on the Island . Afro Barbadian music Include Saxophone, Trombone and Trumpet also there were believed to be a Traditional Belief system of Shango and Baba Aluaye which spread in Barbados as well . Music is also an essential part of Barbados Culture, Calypso , Soca , reggae , music festivals such as the Crop over festival is known as Bajan Carnival and Jazz festival .

The Tuk music Instruments Include bass drum, kettle drum , penny whistle and tin flute , traditional customs such as the shaggy bear , the green mother sally , representing female fertility , customs which are also representative of bush traditional doctors or traditional healers from African Villages , and the Siltmen represent surviving hard times.

Afro Barbadian Festivals .

They also celebrate Holetown festival with a cultural and historic displays , this festival is a Afro Bajan Culture and customs . Oistins fish festival is a week long easter festival celebrated on the south coast of Barbados , and traditional seafood meals for the easter . Afro Barbadians local delicacies Include cornmeal , spicy pepper pot stew , cassava, coconut bread, sweet potatoes , macaroni pie , coleslaw , rice and peas . The Yam Festival became the Crop cover festival which is believed to be of Igbo Origins Include agricultural and Spiritual customs .

The African song or Chant in Barbados .

The African song or chant originated from West Africa which dates back to the 17th Century to 1824, It is believed songs text is only known as Manuscript of an African work song that was chanted in the Sugar fields of Barbados also the Barbadian folk song is of Igbo and some Ahanta Origins .

The Tuk used African rhythms and Instruments which has African , Indian and some English influence , Others believed Barbados Island was formerly known as Los Barbados by Portuguese Sailors in the 1500s , In the 17th century , Africans developed Barbados by 1650s. It is said in the mid 1600s, Enslaved Africans which is believed to have came from either Central or Eastern part of Africa, this Includes tulk drums, ,landship, communication among the people on the plantations to rebel if possible.

Traditional games of Africans Origins in Barbados Warri or Oware and Ampe .

There many games which was brought to Barbados such as Warri also known as Oware and Ampe which originated from the West African regions such as Present day Ghana and other parts of West African regions such as Present day Nigeria , Present day Togo , Present day Benin and other parts of West Africa .

Website Built with WordPress.com.

Up ↑