Afro-Barbadians in Barbados of African Ancestry , Caribbeans.
Afro Barbadians are descendants of Freed and Enslaved Africans who were transported or captured by Europeans such as British or English . They were captured from Present day Nigeria, Present day Sierra Leone , Present day Congos Including Republic Congo, Present day Angola, Present day Senegal , Present day Togo, Present day Benin, Present day Guinea Bissau, Present day Ivory Coast , Present day Equatorial Guinea, Gold Coast Present day Ghana , Present day Cameroon , Present day Mozambique and Other parts of West Africa and Central Africa . It is believed Enslaved Africans brought to Barbados mostly came from African ethnic groups such as Fon , Aja, Mina, Kikongo, Ewe, Igbo, Ibibio, few Yoruba , Fulani , Akan Including Asante or Ashanti, Ahanta and Fante or Mfantse , Ga Adangme , Efik , Hausa , Bamileke , Tikar and Other ethnic groups across Africa . It is said sugar cane cultivation began in the 1640s, Slavery in Barbados began after a Captain known as Powell brought the first enslaved Africans in the 1627 mostly from Gold Coast Present day Ghana which enslaved Ghanaians were captured from both Elmina and Axim slave forts while other enslaved Nigerians were also captured from the Badagry Slave fort and they were sold to Barbados by the European Slave traders during the 1700s laboring of cotton and tobacco was contracted due to their demand for enslavements of Africans and a strong labor force after the sugar revolution, It is said Slave Ships from Europe was filled with guns and other goods by the mid 1600s there were over 5,000 enslaved Africans in Barbados and by the early 1800s, there were another over 385,000 being enslaved .
It is said by the beginning of the 1800s the majority of the enslaved Africans were Imported caused by the high mortality rate , due to the bad conditions and overwork . It is believed by the 1700s, Barbados was considered as one of the leaders in the Slave trade from the European Colonies . It is believed Sugar cane cultivation began in the 1640s, and Sugar was the focus of the Industry as It developed Into the main commercial enterprise, Barbados was divided into large plantation estates which replaced the smally holding of the early English Settlers as the wealthy planters pushed out the poor. Enslaved Africans were transported in the last 2 decades of the 17th Century , Sugar cane dominated Barbados economy growth, the Island’s cash crop was at the top . Majority of the enslaved Africans were Imported caused by the high mortality rate , due to the bad conditions and overwork .
It is believed by the 1700s, Barbados was considered to be one of the Leaders in the Slave trade from the European Colonies . Sugar cane cultivation began in the 1640s, and Sugar was the focus of the Industry as it developed into the main commercial enterprise , Barbados was divided Into large plantation estates which replaced the smally holding of the early English settlers as the wealthy planters pushed out of the poor their wealth . Enslaved Africans were transported in the last 2 decades of the 17th Century, Sugar cane dominated Barbados economy growth, the Island’s cash crop was at the top sugar Industry in the 1720s and In the 1680s, they were 15,000 enslaved Africans freed while 50,000 were still enslaved . In the early 19th Century, they continued to imported enslaved Africans In Barbados, It is estimated between 1627 and 1807, approximately 387,000 enslaved Africans were captured or sold by British to Barbados and Slave trade was ceased In 1807, emancipation took place In 1834. According to the world factbook historical account , the Island was Inhabited when It was first settled by the English In 1627. Enslaved Africans worked on the Sugar plantations established on the Island until 1834 when Slavery was abolished. Barbados is located in the Caribbean and shares border to the northeast of Venezuela . The Barbados population has a higher percentage of people of African ancestry, which is followed by 8% population of the mixed race known as Mulatto and European which is only 4% .
According to George Eleady’sCole account, The honourable Sir. Justice Marston Gibson, Ka is the current chief and president of the court of Appeal . He was born on the 3rd of March , 1954 and was educated at St. Matthias School, Boys Foundation and Harrison College . He pursued legal studies at the Cave hill Campus of the university of the western Indies from 1972 and he obtained the bachelor of laws in 1975. In 1977, he was awarded the Rhodes Scholarship and bachelor of the Civil law at the Keble College, Oxford University in England , which he obtained In 1979. He also attended the Hugh wooding law School St. Augustine In Trinidad and Tobago from 1979 to 1981, he was awarded for the chairman prize for evidence and procedure in 1981. While he attended the Hugh Wooding Law School. He lectured in Criminal law at the faculty of law. Martin went to USA In 1987 and he was admitted to practice law in the state of New York In 1989 and served for 22 years in New York State court system futhermore, he began in 1989 the month of March 1989, as an Appellate Court Attorney from 1989 to 1992 .
The Kingship in Barbados among Afro Barbadians .
Afro Barbadians trace their Lineage and Inherit through both parents which is mother and father.In Afro Barbadian Culture, their household may consists of a single man or women .They idealize a households that consists of married couple and their children also these households can also Include brothers, uncles, son as a core family unit .
The Traditional Afro Bajan Stick fighting in Barbados of African Origins .
This Sticking fighting which had originated from West Africa , Others claimed Present day Angola, during bajan stick fighting where performed by a group of 2 people using fire hardened wooden sticks, varying in length as weapons and carrying the stick fighting . It is believed Africans who were enslaved arrived with the English Slave traders In 1627 the plantation main crops Include tobacco, sugar cane also Bajan African dolls,
Coucou which is Fufu a local dishes which originated from West Africa and also with flying fish . Coucou which was also brought to Antigua , Barbados , Bahamas , Belize , Honduras but in Puerto rico and Ecuador which is Mofongo futhermore, Coucou can be found in other parts of the Americas which is made up of maize , guinea corn also some sweet potatoes or Conkies . Kwaku Ananse folktales was also brought and told in Jamaica, Barbados, Bahamas, Grenada, Antigua , Nicaragua, Aruba , French Guiana and other parts of the Caribbeans and Americas during Slave Trade . The Enslaved Africans at the plantations will put on fire to spread the Kwaku Ananse Stories and also sing songs which was brought to the new world , which enslaved Akans , Igbo , Yoruba and other African People of West and Central Africa also share stories which are similar to Kwaku Ananse and Kwaku Ananse in the Carribeans is rather known as Anacy .
According to Sun Group Inc’s historical account , Back in 1627 few of enslaved Africans came ashore with English Slave traders during Slave trade. Enslaved Africans built the Chattel houses as the type of Structure was the most suitable, over 3,00 enslaved Africans were in Barbados , Sugar production played a big roles the crop over festival which is a 3 week long festival parades , contest , traditional harvesting of sugar cane on the Island as well as paying homage.The Afro Barbadian Crop over festival is celebrated by taking big part display on the streets in creative costumes, Calypso music. They also make pottery which they produced, they make clothes basket weaving , bush teas are being planted even used used for medicinal and nutritious purposes also It is used for drinking teas.
According to Frank Cass’s historical account , Barbados played a significant role in early trade that linked the Carribeans with West Africa and of Britian although the Island ‘s economic Importance among the english and their sugar empire was superseded by Jamaica in the early In the early 18th Century , It is believed over 350,000 Africans landed on the shores from about about 1650 to 1807 , approximately 375,000 and 1,000 were African natives by the last quarter of the 18th Century during the 18th Century during the period, they were 70,000. Enslaved Africans by 1817 who were comprised only seven percent (70%) of the population that were numbered about 77,000.
During the 1630s, Sugar cane was Introduced to the agriculture , the production of Sugar , tobacco and cotton from 1644 to 1700 the Sugar and Slavery , a potential market was formed for enslaved Africans and sugar making machinery by the Dutch who were considered to have supplied Barbados with their requirements of forced labour from West Africa. According to Axes, enslaved Africans came from Present day Sierra Leone, Present day Guinea, Present day Ghana , Present day Ivory Coast, Present day Nigeria , Present day Angola , Present day Cameroon and Other parts of Africa. It is said Europeans plantation became stronger and successful in Slavery business when they arrived in Barbados in the earlier period. It is said by 1720, Barbados were no longer a dominant force within the Sugar Industry.Bridgetown, Barbados was a capital and commercial center of Barbados, It is also the Island’s only city which was established in 1628, It is the cultural , political , economic heart of this Caribbean Island nation and by the 17th Century Bridgetown were the focus of the British trade based expansion in the Americas, the town of Bridgetown had become a trading post for goods, sugar and enslaved Africans who were distributed throughout Americas. According to Joyce Chepkemoi’s account, Africans who were enslaved came to Barbados during the 16th and 17th Centuries futhermore, Bajan Creole is closely related to Guyanese , Belizean Creole and Gullah language also Bajan Creole is combined with Igbo, Manjaku, Fulani, Susu, some Twi, some Efik , some mixture of Ga Dangme and other mixed African languages but the language actually has a strong Igbo Influence , Barbados has a strong Igbo and others claimed some Akan Influence in Bajan Creole , they are Igbo words such as Unu which became Wunna, Obia which became Obeah, be mu which became Bim di , de or deh , Soso . Fulani words Include Jukka poke , spur became Jook Juk, Twi words such as Adope which became duppy. Manjaku is a language spoken in Guinea Bissau, Manjaku word such as Ngyam became Nyam . The Crop festival dates back to the late 1700s, masquerades are of Igbo Origin, costumes is both Barbadian and some West African Origins , Afro Barbadian Jewelleries is considered to be of African and Indian Origin which was brought to the west Indies during and after Slavery jewelries which is known as West Indian Bangle . It is believed African women who arrived in Barbados wore bangles for centuries as a symbol of adornments, It is claimed while Indians who Intermarried with them the Indian women wore the bangles as a symbol of marriage Union, these bangles were made up of diamond , silver, copper and gold they are worn traditionally in pairs and It is used to used as a awesome gifts . The Afro Barbadian Macaroni pie which is Macaroni and Cheese is specially seasoned and baked to perfection .The Introduction of Sugar cane from Dutch Brazil In 1640 , which completely transformed Society and economy . Barbados eventually had one of the biggest Sugar cane Industries, the british were forced to abolish Slave trade In 1807 , In 1816, enslaved Africans led a rebellion of 20,000 enslaved Africans on over 70 Plantations , they fought bravely and kicked European Plantation owners , there was a flag taken from rebels against Slavery in Barbados , after the Uprising Known as Bussa’s rebellion in 1816, It is believed the flag a appears to stressed the rebels loyalty to Britain to the crown while conveying their earnest desire for liberty. It is believed later European forces 100 of them were killed by enslaved Africans during the rebellion. According to Williamsburg’s historical account , Barbados is widely regarded as the first British Colony to undergo a Sugar revolution , It is said by the 1620s, enslaved Africans had accompanied the first settlers also in the 1670s the Slave trade , particularly through his agent , the royal African company located in the Bridgetown, became the primary supplier of labour on the Island , It is said after the English settled in Barbados In 1627 , they quickly began cultivating different crops find a lucrative export . Enslaved Africans in Barbados sometimes escaped by boat or ship to Other Islands such as St. Vincent and Antigua in contrast to white Indentured servants , by European Slavery laws, enslaved Africans could not legally own a land but many of them were forced to migrate with plantation owners also sold to other English Colonies such as Bahamas, Carolina and Others they brought the experience with plantation agriculture as well as strategies for how to resist the new world enslavement. It is said Europeans Slave owners had a trading system that no Africans being enslaved cannot be sold , convey , Imported or Inherited without first being registered.
After the Slavery Abolition Act in 1833, European Slave owners were allowed to compensate for the loss of their Property . In 1661 to 1688 during that periods, the Sugar cane plantations which were required as a deal of hard labor, Slave codes were Implemented and Sugar cane Industry exploded and enslaved Africans brought over to Barbados to cultivate the Sugar cane .
Revolts in Barbados by Afro Barbadians .
Revolts were led by the mostly the enslaved Igbos between 1702 and 1816. According to Matthew Cornibert historical account , the origin and construction of the Slave houses in Barbados , the Slave houses were made from materials such as stones, wood mainly wattle and daub houses with thatched roofs were built in Barbados . The enslaved Africans who worked on the plantations they had to construct and repair their own houses known as Slave huts, the Slave houses that were built in Barbados are wattle, daub houses with a thatched roof .
The Stone houses were constructed but also used thatched roofs . In the early Barbadian plantation , most of the Slave huts that are standing this modern day in the parish of St. Lucy on the road to river bay It is sad the Slave house the stone hut has a thatched roof , the walls are made with slave roof covered with outside leaves , the roof can be made with a variety of leaves . The roof thatching in Barbados was made from plantation leaves especially in the 17th and 18th Centuries , the palm leaves or branches and what was the most common type the leaves or trash of the sugar cane . Huts needed constant maintenance and frequent replacement . The Stone, wooden houses had wooden frames and shutters similar to those working class houses in the 20th Century and In the mid 17th Century , planters houses along with the higher class and poor whites . The purpose and significance of the barbados slave code masters to torture slaves physically and mentally .
Emancipation is celebrated on the 1st day of August to mark the abolition of Slavery in Barbados. It dates back to the Slave uprising on the Island , called the rebellion of 1816, which was led by Bussa and enslaved Igbo form Present day Nigeria . According to Kew Richmond Surrey’s historical account , between 1662 and 1807 the British shipped 3.1 million Africans across the Atlantic Ocean in the transatlantic Slave trade . It is said Africans were forcibly brought to the British owned colonies In the caribbean , enslaved Africans constantly rebelled against Slavery right up until emancipation In 1834. The Slave revolts during the 18th and 19th Centuries , Including Tacky’s rebellion In 1760s Jamaica , the Haitian revolution then the Feodon revolution around the 1790s , In 1816, Barbados Slave revolt was led by Bussa alongside with enslaved Africans there was another Slave revolt which took place in Jamaica led by Sam Sharpe . It is believed the british Slave trade officially ended in 1807 and Barbados was officially ended in 1807 and Barbados formally nickname was known as Little England .
Afro Barbadian history Include the emergence of the Sugar Industry , escalation of the Slave trade , the 17th Century Slave Society , the black codes, Slave resistances , free blacks and freed coloreds in the 18th Century , the plantocracy , eastern rebellion , black empowerment , emancipation and Apprenticeship , Independence and the post Independence. It is said both few Barbadians and Americans Identify Slavery with the Cultivation of rice , rice was considered as a major plantation crop the Africa rice is believed to have been domesticated above 3000 years ago in the Inland delta of the Upper niger river in the Present day Mali . The Europeans such as the Portuguese and Dutch established a trading fort on the coast of West Africa before the British on the coast of the regions of Senegal to Liberia which served as a major focus for the Atlantic Slave trade . Afro Barbadians escaped Maroons who were mostly of Igbo Ancestry alongside with non Igbo Maroons who were believed to be Akans and some of Congolese Ancestry . The Rebellion led by Bussa started in the evening in the southeast parish of St. Philips , spreading to the most of the southern and central parishes of Church , St. John , St. George and part of St. Michael , 3 days later It was put down by the local militia or soldiers and the King’s troops.
The Bussa rebellion ws from 14th April to 16th April, 1816 was the largest slave revolt , Bussa with both Maroons , freed and enslaved Africans treated unfairly by the Europeans which led to the abolition of Slavery and emancipation of former Slaves , It was followed by the large scale rebellion in Demara in 1823 . Bussa was considered as a freed man born in Present day Nigeria and was an Igbo by tribe who was sold by the British to Barbados where Slaver had been legal since 1661, In the late 18th Century as well . Bussa , King Wiltshire Bailey and Johnny led the enslaved Africans at the Bailey’s plantation on the 16th April, 1816, Bussa gathered some 400 freedom fighters both men and women , Bussa military defeated the Europeans he still remain Barbados Icon, In 1985, 1969, there were able to communicate with each other in their native languages , playing drums , practicing their Indigenous African Spirituality , provoking European Slave traders were part of the revolts . On the 14th April, `1816, Bussa enslaved African Igbo by tribe led a rebellion with both freed and enslaved Maroons who were mostly Igbos .
The Baobab tree was considered to be of the African landscapes and the Oldest living tree on the Island . Afro Barbadian music Include Saxophone, Trombone and Trumpet also there were believed to be a Traditional Belief system of Shango and Baba Aluaye which spread in Barbados as well . Music is also an essential part of Barbados Culture, Calypso , Soca , reggae , music festivals such as the Crop over festival is known as Bajan Carnival and Jazz festival .
The Tuk music Instruments Include bass drum, kettle drum , penny whistle and tin flute , traditional customs such as the shaggy bear , the green mother sally , representing female fertility , customs which are also representative of bush traditional doctors or traditional healers from African Villages , and the Siltmen represent surviving hard times.
Afro Barbadian Festivals .
They also celebrate Holetown festival with a cultural and historic displays , this festival is a Afro Bajan Culture and customs . Oistins fish festival is a week long easter festival celebrated on the south coast of Barbados , and traditional seafood meals for the easter . Afro Barbadians local delicacies Include cornmeal , spicy pepper pot stew , cassava, coconut bread, sweet potatoes , macaroni pie , coleslaw , rice and peas . The Yam Festival became the Crop cover festival which is believed to be of Igbo Origins Include agricultural and Spiritual customs .
The African song or Chant in Barbados .
The African song or chant originated from West Africa which dates back to the 17th Century to 1824, It is believed songs text is only known as Manuscript of an African work song that was chanted in the Sugar fields of Barbados also the Barbadian folk song is of Igbo and some Ahanta Origins .
The Tuk used African rhythms and Instruments which has African , Indian and some English influence , Others believed Barbados Island was formerly known as Los Barbados by Portuguese Sailors in the 1500s , In the 17th century , Africans developed Barbados by 1650s. It is said in the mid 1600s, Enslaved Africans which is believed to have came from either Central or Eastern part of Africa, this Includes tulk drums, ,landship, communication among the people on the plantations to rebel if possible.
Traditional games of Africans Origins in Barbados Warri or Oware and Ampe .
There many games which was brought to Barbados such as Warri also known as Oware and Ampe which originated from the West African regions such as Present day Ghana and other parts of West African regions such as Present day Nigeria , Present day Togo , Present day Benin and other parts of West Africa .